FLATGEO Consulting Co., Ltd.

List of Standards

List of Standards

The list of standards (ASTM, BS and TCVN) which are commonly used in...

Holiday calendar in 2018

Holiday calendar in 2018

Date Number of days off 2017  New Year's...

Standard Penetration Test

Standard Penetration Test

Standard penetration test (SPT) is one of the most common in situ testing...

Precision or Accuracy ???

Precision or Accuracy ???

When working with technical documents, readers are often deal with specific...

Bulk Density

Bulk Density

1. Definition: A bulk density of a soil sample is defined as a mass per...

Compaction Test

Compaction Test

1. Definition: The bulk density or dry density of soils is not a constant...

Warning on Webpage Content Stealing

Warning on Webpage Content Stealing

On February 27, 2014, flatGEO Consulting Co. accessed to a webpage on...

Datalogger for Oedometers

Datalogger for Oedometers

After a four-month-trial period, flatGEO has finished a datalogger system for...

  • List of Standards

    List of Standards

    July 18, 2011
  • Holiday calendar in 2018

    Holiday calendar in 2018

    October 2, 2011
  • Standard Penetration Test

    Standard Penetration Test

    December 12, 2011
  • Precision or Accuracy ???

    Precision or Accuracy ???

    January 7, 2012
  • Bulk Density

    Bulk Density

    February 20, 2012
  • Compaction Test

    Compaction Test

    March 7, 2012
  • Warning on Webpage Content Stealing

    Warning on Webpage Content Stealing

    February 27, 2014
  • Datalogger for Oedometers

    Datalogger for Oedometers

    July 21, 2015
09087998
Today
This week
This month
55
3524
34949
Your IP: 54.80.115.140

Bulk density 1. Definition:

A bulk density of a soil sample is defined as a mass per unit volume. The bulk density is denoted by ρm and has a unit of g/cm³ or Mg/m³.

2. Calculation:

bulk density

where:

ρm bulk density (g/cm³ or Mg/m³)
m mass of a soil sample (g or Mg)
V volume of that soil sample (cm³ or m³)

» In order to know a mass m of a soil sample then... that sample should be placed on the scale.

» In order to know a volume V of that soil sample then... the procedure is a little complicated:

If the soil sample has a regular shape, for instance, cube or cylinder... : the volume of that soil sample could be calculated based on their dimensions.

If the soil sample has an irregular shape: its volume can be determined indirectly using Archimedes' principle.

3. Determination of in-situ density:

One of the common methods for determination of in-situ density is to determine the volume V of a hole on the ground and the mass m of soils taken from that hole.

Nowadays, there are several methods for determination of volumes.

» The drive-cylinder method is a simple one but taking more effort. The mass m is the mass of soils inside the cylinder. The volume V is exactly the volume of cylinder.

» Sand-replacement and rubber-balloon methods use the same principle: the volume of a hole on the ground is determined indirectly by a density of another material: standard sand particles (for sand-replacement method) and water (for rubber-balloon method).

» Both nuclear gauge and electrical density gauge methods do not request to prepare a hole for measuring the volume. The water content and bulk density of the ground could be interpolated using a predefined correlation between water content/density with nuclear transmission or electrical properites.

The common apparatuses for those methods are displayed below.

Drive-cylinder
method
Sand-replacement
method
Rubber Balloon
method
Nuclear gauge
method
Electrical density gauge
method

4. Reference standards:

a) ASTM D7263 : Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Density (Unit Weight) of Soil Specimens

b) ASTM D2937 : Standard Test Method for Density of Soil in Place by the Drive-Cylinder Method

c) ASTM D1556 : Standard Test Method for Density and Unit Weight of Soil in Place by the Sand-Cone Method

d) ASTM D2167 : Standard Test Method for Density and Unit Weight of Soil in Place by the Rubber Balloon Method

e) ASTM D5195 : Standard Test Method for Density of Soil and Rock In-Place at Depths Below Surface by Nuclear Methods

f) ASTM D7698 : Standard Test Method for In-Place Estimation of Density and Water Content of Soil and Aggregate by Correlation with Complex Impedance Method

Add comment

Security code
Refresh